[This is Part#4 of the Energy Meter Series. You may access Part#1 here, Part#2 here and Part#3 here.]

This article represents a typical exhaustive list of the parameters being read by utility-scale energy meters.

 

image by essence of engineering

 

  1. Instantaneous Parameters

These parameters are basically snapshots of the data. It represents a random value being taken. Meter does not store such parameters. Modems read such parameters and communicate them to the server, where they are stored. Instantaneous parameters being snapshots, one cannot identify any occurrence between two consecutive readings.

Voltage KW
R Phase Voltage R Phase KW
Y Phase Voltage Y Phase Active Power
B Phase Voltage B Phase Active Power
RY P to P Voltage Reactive Power
YB P to P Voltage R Phase Reactive Power
BR P to P Voltage R Phase Reactive Power
R Phase power factor R Phase Reactive Power
Y Phase power factor total three phase Reactive power
B Phase power factor R phase Apparent Power
Avg power factor Y phase Apparent Power
Cumulative Active energy B phase Apparent Power
Cumulative Reactive energy total apparent power
Cumulative Apparent energy Current
Frequency Natural Current

 

  1. Billing Parameters

DISCOMs charge the users depending upon their category, e.g. Industrial User, Domestic User, Commercial User, Institutional User, Government User, etc. Even such user categories have further sub-categories. Hence, in order to rationalise their charges, DISCOM uses a term called “Time of Day” or “Time of Usage” – which essentially helps DISCOM in defining Peak, Off-Peak and Night Hours (divided over 24 Hrs). Accordingly, energy charges are levied to the respective sets of users. Thus, Billing Parameters store values according to the ToD / ToU configurations. Mostly the Billing Parameters being stored are Energy, Demand and Power Factor. Such values are stored over the last 12 months. By so, DISCOM also gets historic billing data.

KWh – Total – Import Maximum Demand – Import – ToD – KW Maximum Demand – Import – Lag – ToD – KVAr
KWh – ToD – Import Maximum Demand – Import – ToD – KW – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Import – Lag – ToD – KVAr – Occurance Time
KWh – Total – Export Maximum Demand – Import – Overall – KW Maximum Demand – Import – Lag – Overall – KVAr
KWh – ToD – Export Maximum Demand – Import – Overall – KW – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Import – Lag – Overall – KVAr – Occurance Time
KWh – Total – Net Maximum Demand – Export – ToD – KW Maximum Demand – Export – Lag – ToD – KVAr
KWh – ToD – Net Maximum Demand – Export – ToD – KW – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Export – Lag – ToD – KVAr – Occurance Time
KVAh – Total – Import Maximum Demand – Export – Overall – KW Maximum Demand – Export – Lag – Overall – KVAr
KVAh – ToD – Import Maximum Demand – Export – Overall – KW – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Export – Lag – Overall – KVAr – Occurance Time
KVAh – Total – Export Maximum Demand – Import – ToD – KVA Maximum Demand – Import – Lead – ToD – KVAr
KVAh – ToD – Export Maximum Demand – Import – ToD – KVA – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Import – Lead – ToD – KVAr – Occurance Time
KVAh – Total – Net Maximum Demand – Export – ToD – KVA Maximum Demand – Import – Lead – Overall – KVAr
KVAh – ToD – Net Maximum Demand – Export – ToD – KVA – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Import – Lead – Overall – KVAr – Occurance Time
KVArh – Total – Lag – Import Maximum Demand – Import – Overall – KVA Maximum Demand – Export – Lead – ToD – KVAr
KVArh – ToD – Lag – Import Maximum Demand – Import – Overall – KVA – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Export – Lead – ToD – KVAr – Occurance Time
KVArh – Total – Lead – Import Maximum Demand – Export – Overall – KVA Maximum Demand – Export – Lead – Overall – KVAr
KVArh – ToD – Lead – Import Maximum Demand – Export – Overall – KVA – Occurance Time Maximum Demand – Export – Lead – Overall – KVAr – Occurance Time
KVArh – Total – Lag – Export Average Power Factor – ToU – Import
KVArh – ToD – Lag – Export Average Power Factor – ToU – Export
KVArh – Total – Lead – Export Average Power Factor – Overall – Import
KVArh – ToD – Lead – Export Average Power Factor – Overall – Export
KVArh – Total – Lag – Net
KVArh – ToD – Lag – Net
KVArh – Total – Lead – Net
KVArh – ToD – Lead – Net

 

  1. Load Survey Parameters

These parameters are quintessential to keep a track of power quality and associated grid performance. As required by the DISCOM, meter manufacturer defines the integration period (15 min / 30 min / 60 min). Over the defined integrated period, meter aggregates (sum for Energy parameters’ values and an average for the rest of the parameters’ value). Again as required by the DISCOM, meter manufacturer provides Load Survey storage space (15 days/30 days/45 days/60 days).

Average Voltage Average KVA KVArh Import
Minimum Voltage Average Maximum Demand KVA Import KVArh Export
Maximum Voltage Average Maximum Demand KVA Export KWh Import
Average R Phase Voltage Average R Phase KVA KWh Export
Average Y Phase Voltage Average Y Phase KVA KVAh Import
Average B Phase Voltage Average B Phase KVA KVAh Export
Average RY Phase Voltage Average KW Average Power Factor
Average YB Phase Voltage Average  Maximum Demand KW Import Power Factor Import
Average BR Phase Voltage Average  Maximum Demand KW export Power Factor Export
Average Current Average R Phase KW Average R Phase Power Factor
Minimum Current Average Y Phase KW Average Y Phase Power Factor
Maximum Current Average B Phase KW Average B Phase Power Factor
Average R Phase Current Average KVAr
Average Y Phase Current Average  Maximum Demand KVAR Import
Average B Phase Current Average  Maximum Demand KVAR export
Neutral Current Average R Phase KVAr
Average Frequency Average Y Phase KVAr
Average B Phase KVAr

 

  1. Events

Meters are also capable of storing the events, notifying abnormalities or anomalies. In the events of improper connections, meter malfunction, meter tampering, etc. it’s imperative for the DISCOM to know about the same. Meters are capable of reading such events. An introduction of GPRS modems has made it easy to detect the tampering or abnormality immediate, enabling DISCOM to take urgently required actions.

Current Reversal R phase Low PF – R Phase Voltage Failure R Phase
Current Reversal Y Phase Low PF – Y Phase Voltage Failure Y Phase
Current Reversal B Phase Low PF – B Phase Voltage Failure B Phase
Current Unbalance Low power factor Unbalance voltage
Current Unbalance R Phase Abnormal Restart Detected Unbalance voltage – R phase
Current Unbalance Y Phase Meter Cover Open Unbalance voltage – Y phase
Current Unbalance B Phase Power failed Unbalance voltage – B phase
Current Missing Magnetic Tamper Low Voltage
R-Ph current missing Neutral disturbance Low voltage – R phase
Y-Ph current missing CT short Low voltage – Y phase
B-Ph current missing CT short – R phase Low voltage – B phase
Over load (current) CT short – Y phase High voltage
Over load (current) – R phase CT short – B phase High voltage – R phase
Over load (current) – Y phase CT open High voltage – Y phase
Over load (current) – B phase CT open – R phase High voltage – B phase
Low Current CT open – Y phase Over Load (KVA)
Low current – R phase CT open – B phase Under Load (KVA)
Low current – Y phase RTC Change Count Short Term Over Load (KVA)
Low current – B phase Power Reversal
Current Bypass Power reversed – R phase
Current Bypass B Phase Power reversed – Y phase
Current Bypass Y Phase Power reversed – B phase
Current Bypass R Phase Meter Round-off
High neutral current

 

In the subsequent post, we shall discuss on DLMS/COSEM.

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